BIMP-EAGA Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment
This report examines BIMP-EAGA countries’ vulnerability to climate change. The findings are intended to support the countries in recognizing the risks posed by climate change, pinpoint hotspots, assess gaps in preparedness, and guide future actions to enhance climate resilience. The assessment was conducted, particularly in the context of food, water, and energy security.
The study defines vulnerability as the degree to which an area is susceptible to the adverse effects of climate change, specifically as manifested in increasing weather variability and projected long-term shift in the occurrence of extreme weather events.
According to the study, BIMP-EAGA’s vulnerability to climate change appears to be relatively lower compared to other parts of Southeast Asia (lower Mekong, northern Philippines, Eastern Sumatra, and the major river deltas of Myanmar and Thailand). However, high to extreme vulnerability hotspots are found in parts of Central and South Kalimantan; Southeastern Papua; Maluku; Gorontalo; parts of Sulawesi in Indonesia; parts of Sarawak in Malaysia; and portions of Central Mindanao and the entire Northeastern and Northwestern Mindanao in the Philippines. It also shows Brunei Darussalam with medium to high climate change exposure due mainly to the higher dry season temperature and the related heat stress occurrence as well as the higher rainfall intensities during the wet season.
The study notes adequate legislations, policies, and plans are in place in BIMP-EAGA countries on climate change adaptation, but stresses there is room for improvement. For one, there is a need to develop synergy in adapting climate-resilience measures among sectors. This is because these practices do not depend on a single government ministry or agency, but involves all sectors—all levels of government, the private sector, and the community.
The study also presses for more funding to improve watershed management, modernize weather station networks, facilities, tools, technology, and databases; establish river basin gauging stations, tidal gauging stations, and buoys in remote areas; improve recovery, organization, processing, and storage of data; regularly maintain irrigation facilities to reduce water losses; and set up a comprehensive system for monitoring watersheds, ecosystems, and natural resources under changing environmental conditions.
• Scope, Framework, and Methodology
• Climate Change Projections
• Vulnerabiity Mapping
• Hotspots of Vulnerabiity
• Implications for the BIMP-EAGA Countries and the Subregion
• State of Preparedness to Climate Change Challenges
• Gaps and Measures to Enhance Preparedness and Address Gaps
• Conclusions and Recommendations